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Brain-related birth injuries can manifest in several different ways. Often, brain injuries develop from oxygen deprivation, such as anoxia, hypoxia, birth asphyxia, and perinatal asphyxia. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a birth injury resulting from oxygen deprivation.
When a brain has been deprived from oxygen, it can react in various ways, such as:
Additionally, brain-related injuries can happen from other birth injuries such as the growth of newborn jaundice into kernicterus, flooding the brain with bilirubin, and the development of the group B strep infection to meningitis which interferes with electrical communications between the spine and the brain.
The leading brain-related injury in relation to birth trauma is cerebral palsy (CP). CP is estimated to affect around 800,000 children, with 8,000-10,000 new cases diagnosed each year. CP can develop after maternal infections, oxygen deprivation, infant stroke, and infant infection. In many instances, CP could have been eliminated with the corrective preventative measures by physician. For example, if a physician fails to monitor fetal distress and take the appropriate actions, the infant may develop CP. Other instances include: